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Research Groups

Assoc Prof Helen Cox

• Bio Sketch

Helen Cox is an epidemiologist based in the Division of Medical Microbiology, a member of the Institute for Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and a co-investigator at the Wellcome Centre for Infectious Disease Research at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Helen has previously worked in tuberculosis programmes run by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and South Africa. She has worked in the area of  tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis since 2001, and was awarded the Union Scientific Prize for tuberculosis research in 2015.

 

• Research Interests

o Epidemiology of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis
o Transmission and evolution of tuberculosis drug resistance
o Feasibility and impact of new diagnostics for tuberculosis
o Models of care for drug-resistant tuberculosis
o New treatment approaches for drug-resistant tuberculosis

 

• Publications (NCBI)

• Mohr-Holland, E., Reuter, A., Hughes, J., Daniels, J., Beko, B., Makhanda, G., De Avezedo, V., Kock, Y., Cox, H., Furin, J., Trivino Duran, L., Isaakidis, P. and Ferlazzo, G. Correspondence regarding "Delamanid for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: a retrospective study from South Africa". Eur Respir J. 2020;56(1).

• Hill, J., Dickson-Hall, L., Grant, A. D., Grundy, C., Black, J., Kielmann, K., Mlisana, K., Mitrani, L., Loveday, M., Moshabela, M., Le Roux, S., Jassat, W., Nicol, M. and Cox, H. Drug-resistant tuberculosis patient care journeys in South Africa: a pilot study using routine laboratory data. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2020;24(1):83-91.

• Furin, J., Loveday, M., Hlangu, S., Dickson-Hall, L., le Roux, S., Nicol, M. and Cox, H. "A very humiliating illness": a qualitative study of patient-centered Care for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):76.

• Koch A, Cox H. Preventing drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(2):157-8.

• Hughes J, Reuter A, Chabalala B, Isaakidis P, Cox H, Mohr E. Adverse events among people on delamanid for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2019;23(9):1017-23.

• de Vos, M., Ley, S. D., Wiggins, K. B., Derendinger, B., Dippenaar, A., Grobbelaar, M., Reuter, A., Dolby, T., Burns, S., Schito, M., Engelthaler, D. M., Metcalfe, J., Theron, G., van Rie, A., Posey, J., Warren, R. Cox, H. Bedaquiline Microheteroresistance after Cessation of Tuberculosis Treatment. N Engl J Med 2019; 380(22): 2178-80.

• Kendall, E. A., Sahu, S., Pai, M., Fox, G. J., Varaine, F., Cox, H., Cegielski, J. P., Mabote, L., Vassall, A. Dowdy, D. W. What will it take to eliminate drug-resistant tuberculosis? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2019; 23(5): 535-46.

• Loveday M, Reuter A, Furin J, Seddon JA, Cox H. The STREAM trial: missed opportunities and lessons for future clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis 2019; 19(4): 351-3.

• Reid, M. J. A., Arinaminpathy, N., Bloom, A., Bloom, B. R., Boehme, C., Chaisson, R., Chin, D. P., Churchyard, G., Cox, H., Ditiu, L., Dybul, M., Farrar, J., Fauci, A. S., Fekadu, E., Fujiwara, P. I., Hallett, T. B., Hanson, C. L., Harrington, M., Herbert, N., Hopewell, P. C., Ikeda, C., Jamison, D. T., Khan, A. J., Koek, I., Krishnan, N., Motsoaledi, A., Pai, M., Raviglione, M. C., Sharman, A., Small, P. M., Swaminathan, S., Temesgen, Z., Vassall, A., Venkatesan, N., van Weezenbeek, K., Yamey, G., Agins, B. D., Alexandru, S., Andrews, J. R., Beyeler, N., Bivol, S., Brigden, G., Cattamanchi, A., Cazabon, D., Crudu, V., Daftary, A., Dewan, P., Doepel, L. K., Eisinger, R. W., Fan, V., Fewer, S., Furin, J., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Gomez, G. B., Graham, S. M., Gupta, D., Kamene, M., Khaparde, S., Mailu, E. W., Masini, E. O., McHugh, L., Mitchell, E., Moon, S., Osberg, M., Pande, T., Prince, L., Rade, K., Rao, R., Remme, M., Seddon, J. A., Selwyn, C., Shete, P., Sachdeva, K. S., Stallworthy, G., Vesga, J. F., Vilc, V. and Goosby, E. P. Building a tuberculosis-free world: The Lancet Commission on tuberculosis. Lancet 2019; 393(10178): 1331-84.

• Zurcher, K., Ballif, M., Fenner, L., Borrell, S., Keller, P. M., Gnokoro, J., Marcy, O., Yotebieng, M., Diero, L., Carter, E. J., Rockwood, N., Wilkinson, R. J., Cox, H., Ezati, N., Abimiku, A. G., Collantes, J., Avihingsanon, A., Kawkitinarong, K., Reinhard, M., Homke, R., Huebner, R., Gagneux, S., Bottger, E. C., Egger, M. and International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate, Aids consortium.  Drug susceptibility testing and mortality in patients treated for tuberculosis in high-burden countries: a multicentre cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2019; 19(3): 298-307.

• Furin J, Cox H, Pai M. Tuberculosis. The Lancet. 2019; 393(10181): 1642-56.

• Cox V, Cox H, Pai M, Stillo J, Citro B, Brigden G. Health care gaps in the global burden of tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2019; 23(2): 125-35.

• Di Tanna, G. L., Raza Khaki, A., Theron, G., McCarthy, K., Cox, H. et al. Effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on clinical outcomes in routine care settings: individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2019; 7(2): e191-e9.

• Merker M, Barbier M, Cox H, Rasigade J-P, Feuerriegel S, Kohl TA, et al. Compensatory evolution drives multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Central Asia. Elife 2018; 7.

• Cox H, Mizrahi V. The Coming of Age of Drug-Susceptibility Testing for Tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2018; 379(15): 1474-5.

• Koch A, Cox H, Mizrahi V. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: challenges and opportunities for diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018; 42: 7-15.

• Mohr, E., Hughes, J., Reuter, A., Trivino Duran, L., Ferlazzo, G., Daniels, J., De Avezedo, V., Kock, Y., Jane Steele, S., Shroufi, A., Ade, S., Alikhanova, N., Benedetti, G., Edwards, J., Cox, H., Furin, J. and Isaakidis, P. Delamanid for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study from South Africa. Eur Respir J 2018; 51(6).

• Fregonese, F., Ahuja, S. D., Akkerman, O. W., Arakaki-Sanchez, D., Ayakaka, I., Baghaei, P., Bang, D., Bastos, M., Benedetti, A., Bonnet, M., Cattamanchi, A., Cegielski, P., Chien, J. Y., Cox, H. et al. Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6(4):265-75.

• Cox H, Hughes J, Black J, Nicol MP. Precision medicine for drug-resistant tuberculosis in high-burden countries: is individualised treatment desirable and feasible? Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18(9): e282-e7.

• Ferlazzo, G., Mohr, E., Laxmeshwar, C., Hewison, C., Hughes, J., Jonckheere, S., Khachatryan, N., De Avezedo, V., Egazaryan, L., Shroufi, A., Kalon, S., Cox, H., Furin, J. and Isaakidis, P.  Early safety and efficacy of the combination of bedaquiline and delamanid for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Armenia, India, and South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18(5): 536-44.

• Bock, P., Jennings, K., Vermaak, R., Cox, H. et al. Incidence of Tuberculosis Among HIV-Positive Individuals Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment at Higher CD4 Counts in the HPTN 071 (PopART) Trial in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018; 77(1): 93-101.

• Cox H, Nicol MP. Tuberculosis eradication: renewed commitment and global investment required. Lancet Infect Dis 2017.

• Boyd R, Ford N, Padgen P, Cox H. Time to treatment for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017; 21(11): 1173-80.

• Reuter, A., Tisile, P., von Delft, D., Cox, H., Cox, V., Ditiu, L., Garcia-Prats, A., Koenig, S., Lessem, E., Nathavitharana, R., Seddon, J. A., Stillo, J., von Delft, A. and Furin, J. The devil we know: is the use of injectable agents for the treatment of MDR-TB justified? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017; 21(11): 1114-26.

• Dheda K, Cox H, Esmail A, Wasserman S, Chang KC, Lange C. Recent controversies about MDR and XDR-TB: Global implementation of the WHO shorter MDR-TB regimen and bedaquiline for all with MDR-TB? Respirology 2017.

• Mohr, E., Daniels, J., Muller, O., Furin, J., Chabalala, B., Steele, S. J., Cox, V., Dolby, T., Ferlazzo, G., Shroufi, A., Duran, L. T. and Cox, H. Missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis despite access to Xpert((R)) MTB/RIF. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017; 21(10): 1100-5.

• Cox H, Reuter A, Furin J, Seddon J. Prevention of hearing loss in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet 2017; 390(10098): 934.

• Cox, H., Dickson-Hall, L., Jassat, W., Moshabela, M., Kielmann, K., Grant, A., Nicol, M., Black, J., Mlisana, K., Vanleeuw, L. and Loveday, M. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa: history, progress and opportunities for achieving universal access to diagnosis and treatment. South African Health Review 2017: 157-67.

• Furin J, Cox H. To Test or Not to Test? Ending the Age-Old Debate for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017.

• Loveday M, Cox H. Carpe diem ('Seize the day'): Building on the findings of the 2015 World Health Organization evaluation of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) programme to make the most of shortened MDR-TB treatment in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2017;107(3):176-7.

• Cox, H., Dickson-Hall, L., Ndjeka, N., Van't Hoog, A., Grant, A., Cobelens, F., Stevens, W. and Nicol, M. Delays and loss to follow-up before treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis following implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in South Africa: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med. 2017;14(2):e1002238.

• Fox, G. J., Benedetti, A., Cox, H., Koh, W. J., Viiklepp, P., Ahuja, S., Pasvol, G., Menzies, D. Group 5 drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: individual patient data meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2017;49(1).

• Bock P, Cox H. Acute care - an important component of the continuum of care for HIV and tuberculosis in developing countries. Anaesthesia. 2017;72(2):147-50.

• Mitnick C, White R, Lu C, Rodriguez C, Andreev Y, Bayona J, Becerra M, Burgos M, Centis R, Cohen T, Cox H, et al . MDR-TB treatment failure detection depends on monitoring interval and microbiologic method. Euro Resp J, September, 2016. 

• London L, Cox H, Coomans F. Multidrug-resistant TB: implementing the right to health through the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress. Health and Human Rights 18(1) June 2016.

• van Cutsem G, Isaakidis P, Farley J, Nardell E, Volchenkov G, Cox H. Infection Control for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Early Diagnosis and Treatment Is the Key. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62 Suppl 3:S238-43.

• Furin J, Cox H. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis on Daru Island. Lancet Respir Med. 2016

• Cox H, Ramma L, Wilkinson L, Azevedo V, Sinanovic E. Cost per patient of treatment for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in a community-based programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(10):1337-45.

• Kranzer K, Elamin WF, Cox H, Seddon JA, Ford N, Drobniewski F. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in preventing aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity: implications for the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. Thorax. 2015;70(11):1070-7.

• Furin J, Harausz E, Zimetbaum P, Cox H. In reply. QTc prolongation and delamanid: access and safety. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015;19(10):1262-3.

• Mohr E, Cox V, Wilkinson L, Moyo S, Hughes J, Daniels J, Muller O and Cox H. Programmatic treatment outcomes in HIV-infected and uninfected drug-resistant TB patients in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015;109(7):425-32.

• Moyo, S., Furin, J.J., Hughes, J., Daniels, J., Snyman, L., Muller, O., Cox, V., Shroufi, A., Cox, H. Outcomes in adolescents undergoing treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa, 2008-2013, Archives of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 3(1) e17934, 2015 

• Hughes J, Isaakidis P, Andries A, Mansoor H, Cox V, Meintjes G and Cox H. Linezolid in drug-resistant tuberculosis: haste makes waste. Eur Respir J. 2015;46(6):1844-6.

• Ramma L, Cox H, Wilkinson L, Foster N, Cunnama L, Vassall A and Sinanovic E. Patients' costs associated with seeking and accessing treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015;19(12):1513-9.

• Daniels JF, Khogali M, Mohr E, Cox V, Moyo S, Edginton M, Hinderaker SG, Meintjes G, Hughes J, De Azevedo V, van Cutsem G and Cox HS. Time to ART Initiation among Patients Treated for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa: Impact on Mortality and Treatment Success. PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0142873.

• Reed C, Mason L, Cox H, Seaworth B, Lessem E, Furin J. Compassionate and optimum use of new tuberculosis drugs. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(10):1131.

• Churchyard GJ, Stevens WS, Mametja LD, McCarthy KM, Chihota V, Nicol MP, Erasmus, L. K., Ndjeka, N. O., Mvusi, L., Vassall, A., Sinanovic, E., Cox, H. S., Dye, C., Grant, A. D. & Fielding, K. L. 2015. Xpert MTB/RIF versus sputum microscopy as the initial diagnostic test for tuberculosis: a cluster-randomised trial embedded in South African roll-out of Xpert MTB/RIF. Lancet Glob Health. 2015;3(8):e450-7.

• Cox HS, Daniels JF, Muller O, Nicol MP, Cox V, van Cutsem G, et al. Impact of Decentralized Care and the Xpert MTB/RIF Test on Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015;2(1):ofv014.

• Cox HS, Furin JJ, Mitnick CD, Daniels C, Cox V, Goemaere E. The need to accelerate access to new drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Bull World Health Organ. 2015;93(7):491-7.

• Hughes J, Isaakidis P, Andries A, Mansoor H, Cox V, Meintjes G, and Cox H. Linezolid for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected and -uninfected patients. Eur Respir J. 2015;46(1):271-4.

• Harausz E, Cox H, Rich M, Mitnick CD, Zimetbaum P, Furin J. QTc prolongation and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015;19(4):385-91.

• Lessem E, Cox H, Daniels C, Furin J, McKenna L, Mitnick CD, et al. Access to new medications for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: Patient, provider and community perspectives. Int J Infect Dis. 2015;32:56-60.

• Moyo S, Cox HS, Hughes J, Daniels J, Synman L, De Azevedo V, et al. Loss from treatment for drug resistant tuberculosis: risk factors and patient outcomes in a community-based program in Khayelitsha, South Africa. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0118919.

• Sinanovic E, Ramma L, Vassall A, Azevedo V, Wilkinson L, Ndjeka, N., McCarthy, K., Churchyard, G. and Cox, H. (2015) Impact of reduced hospitalisation on the cost of treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 19: 172-178.

• Merker, M., Blin, C., Mona, S., Duforet-Frebourg, N., Lecher, S., Willery, E., Blum, M., Rusch-Gerdes, S., Mokrousov, I., Aleksic, E., Allix-Beguec, C., Antierens, A., Augustynowicz-Kopec, E., Ballif, M., Barletta, F., Beck, H. P., Barry, C. E., 3rd, Bonnet, M., Borroni, E., Campos-Herrero, I., Cirillo, D., Cox, H., et al. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage. Nat Genet. 2015

• Cox H, Mbhele S, Mohess N, Whitelaw A, Muller O, Zemanay W, et al. Impact of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation for TB diagnosis in a high TB and HIV prevalence primary care clinic in South Africa: a pragmatic randomised trial. PLoS Med. 2014;11(11):e1001760.

• Cox H, Ford N. The scourge of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Eastern Europe. Public Health Action. 2014;4(3):S1-2.

• Cox H, van Cutsem G, Cox V. Better treatment of XDR tuberculosis needed in South Africa. Lancet. 2014;384(9943):581-2.

• Cox HS. The benefits and risks of mathematical modelling in tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18(5):507.

• Cox H, Hughes J, Daniels J, Azevedo V, McDermid C, Poolman M, et al. Community-based treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18(4):441-8.

• Merker M, Kohl TA, Roetzer A, Truebe L, Richter E, Rusch-Gerdes S, Fattorini L, Oggioni M, Cox H, Varaine F, Niemann S. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Complex Evolution Patterns of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains in Patients. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e82551.

• Seddon JA, Hesseling AC, Finlayson H, Fielding K, Cox H, Hughes J, et al. Preventive therapy for child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Dec;57(12):1676-84.

• Hanekom M, Streicher EM, Van de Berg D, Cox H, McDermid C, Bosman M, et al. Population structure of mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is strain genotype and culture medium dependent. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e70178.

• Cox H, Ford N. Decentralisation of multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis care and management. Lancet Infectious Diseases, June 2013

• Abubakar I, Zignol M, Falzon D, Raviglione M, Ditiu, L, Masham S, Adetifa I, Ford N,  Cox H, Lawn SD, Marais BJ, McHugh TD, Mwaba P, Bates M, Lipman M, Zijenah L, Logan S, McNerney R, Zumla A, Sarda K, Nahid P, Hoelscher M, Pletschette M, Memish ZA, Kim P, Hafner R, Cole S, Migliori GB, Maeurer M, Schito M. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. Lancet Infect Dis. March 2013.

• Cox H, Ford N, Hughes J, Goemaere E: Linezolid for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2013, 13(1):16.

• Aleksic E, Merker M, Cox H, Reiher B, Sekawi Z, Hearps AC, Ryan CE, Lee AV, Goursaud R, Malau C et al: First Molecular Epidemiology Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Kiribati. PLoS One 2013, 8(1):e55423.

• Toczek A, Cox H, du Cros P, Cooke G, Ford N. Strategies for reducing treatment default in drug resistant tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J TB and Lung Disease, epub Dec4 2012

• Falzon D, Gandhi N, Migliori GB, Sotgiu G, Cox H, Holtz TH, Hollm-Delgado MG, Keshavjee S, Deriemer K, Centis R, D'Ambrosio L, Lange C, Bauer M, Menzies D. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on MDR-TB outcomes. European Respiratory Journal, epub Oct25, 2012.

• Seddon JA, Hesseling A, Dunbar R, Cox H, Hughes J, Fielding K, Godfrey-Faussett P, Schaaf HS. Decentralised care for the management of child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Public Health Action. Sep 2012 2012;2(3):66-70.

• Dey T, Brigden G, Cox H, Shubber Z, Cooke G, Ford N. Outcomes of clofazimine for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrobial Therapy, Oct 10, 2012

• Collaborative Group for Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB. Multidrug Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens and Patient Outcomes: An Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of 9,153 Patients. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(8).

• Hughes J, Cox H, Ford N. Sanatoria for drug-resistant tuberculosis: an outdated response. Lancet 2012; 379(9832): 2148; author reply -9.

• McNerney R, Maeurer M, Abubakar I, Marais B, McHugh TD, Ford N, Weyer K, Lawn S, Grobusch MP, Memish Z, Memish Z, Squire SB, Pantaleo G, Chakaya GJ, Casenghi M, Migliori GB, Mwaba P, Zijenah L, Hoelscher M, Cox H, Swaminathan S, Kim PS, Schito M, Harari A, Bates M, Schwank S, O'Grady J, Pletschette M, Ditui L, Atun R and Zumla A. Tuberculosis diagnostics and biomarkers: needs, challenges, recent advances, and opportunities. J Infect Dis 2012, 205 Suppl 2:S147-158. 

• Isaakidis P, Varghese B, Mansoor H, Cox H, Ladomirska J, Saranchuk P, Da Silva E, Khan S, Paryani R, Udwadia Z, Miglioroi G, Sotgiu G, Reid T. Adverse events among HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral and second line anti-TB treatment in Mumbai, India. PLoS ONE 2012, 7(7):e40781, July 2012

• Zumla A, Abubakar I, Raviglione M, Hoelscher M, Ditiu L, McHugh TD, Squire SB, Cox H, Ford N, McNerney R et al: Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs. J Infect Dis 2012, 205 Suppl 2:S228-240.

• Cox H, Hughes J, Ford N, London L: MDR tuberculosis and non-compliance with therapy. Lancet Infect Dis 2012, 12(3):178; author reply 178-179.

• Cox H, Ford N. Linezolid for the treatment of complicated drug resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J TB Lung Disease, 16(4), 447-54, 2012

• Cox H, Escombe R, McDermid C, Mtshemla Y, Spelman T, Azevedo V, London L: Wind-driven roof turbines: a novel way to improve ventilation for TB infection control in health facilities. PLoS One 2012, 7(1):e29589.

• Isaakidis P, Cox HS, Varghese B, Montaldo C, Da Silva E, Mansoor H, et al. Ambulatory multi-drug resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28066.

• Boehme C, Nicol M, Nabeta P, Michael J, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, Gler M, Blakemore R, Worodria W, Gray C, Huang L, Caceres T, Mehdiyev R, Raymond L, Whitelaw A, Sagadevan K, Alexander H, Albert H, Cobelens F, Cox H, Alland D, Perkins M. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet. 2011; 377(9776): 1495-505.

• Cox H, Ford N, Keshavjee S, McDermid C, von Schoen-Angerer T, Mitnick C, Goemaere E. Moxifloxacin: rational use in today’s global TB epidemic. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011; 11(4): 259-60.

• Cox H, McDermid C, Azevedo V, Muller O, Coetzee D, Simpson J, Barnard M, Coetzee G, van Cutsem G, Gomaere E. Epidemic levels of drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR- and XDR-TB) in a high HIV prevalence setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa. PLoS One 5(11), Nov 2010

• Cox H, van Cutsem G. How can we reduce MDR-TB transmission? Lessons from household screening in Peru. Lancet, Dec 2010

• Cox H, Ford N, McDermid C, van Cutsem G, Goemaere E. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa. Lancet 376(9742): 681, 2010

• Viney K, O’Connor J, Wiegandt A, Lambert M, Cox H, Downing S. Tuberculosis trends in the Pacific: 2000-2006. Public Health Dialog 16(1), April 2010

• Plinke C, Cox HS, Zarkua N, Karimovitch HA, Braker K, Diel R, Rusch-Gerdes S, Feuerriegel S, Niemann S. embCAB sequence variation among ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates without embB306 mutation. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 65(7); 1359-67, July 2010

• Plinke C, Cox HS, Kalon S, Doshetov D, Rusch-Gerdes S, Niemann S. Tuberculosis ethambutol resistance: concordance between phenotypic and genotypic test results. Tuberculosis 89: 448-452, 2009

• Niemann S, Koser CU, Gagneux S, Plinke C, Homolka S, Bignell H, Carter RJ, Cheetham RK, Cox A, Gormley NA, Kokko-Gonzales P, Murray LJ, Rigatti R, Smith VP, Arends FPM, Cox HS, Smith G, Archer JAC. Genomic diversity among drug sensitive and multidrug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with identical DNA fingerprints. PLoS One 4(10), October 2009

• Feuerriegel S, Cox HS, Zarkua N, karimovich H, Braker K, Rusch-Gerdes S, Niemann S. Sequence analysis of just four genes to detect extensively drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients undergoing treatment. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53 (8): 3353-3356, 2009

• Cox HS, Ford N, Reeder J. Are we really that good at treating tuberculosis? Lancet Infectious Diseases, 9: 138-9, 2009

• Cox HS, Sibilia K, Kalon S, Khamraev A, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Mills C, Niemann S. Emergence of extensive drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 359;22, 2398-99, 2008

• Cox H, McDermid C. XDR tuberculosis can be cured with aggressive treatment. Lancet, 372: 1363-4, 2008

• Cox HS, Morrow M, Deutschmann P. The long term efficacy of DOTS short-course regimens for tuberculosis: a systematic review of disease recurrence after successful treatment. British Medical Journal, published online 4 Feb 2008; doi:10.1136/bmj.39463.640787.BE

• Cox HS, Kalon S, Allamuratova S, Sizaire V, Tigay ZN, Rusch-Gerdes S, Karimovich HA, Kebede Y, Mills C. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan: Treatment complexity and XDR-TB among treatment failures. PLoS One, 2 (11): e1126, 2007 

• Materu S, Cox H, Isaakidis P, Baruani B, Ogaro T, Caugant D. Serogroup X in Meningococcal Disease, Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(6): 944-945, 2007

• Cox HS, Niemann S, Ismailov G, Doshetov D, Orozco JD, Blok L, Rusch-Gerdes S, Kebede Y. Risk of acquiring drug resistance during DOTS tuberculosis treatment in a setting of high drug resistance. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44: 1421-1427, 2007

• Helen Cox, Yared Kebede, Sholpan Allamuratova, Gabit Ismailov, Zamira Davlemuratova, Graham Byrnes, Christine Stone, Stefan Niemann, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Lucie Blok, Daribay Doshetov. Tuberculosis recurrence and mortality after successful treatment: impact of drug resistance. PloS Medicine, 3(10) e384, 2006  

• Kermode M, Singh LB, Raju RK, Alam S, Cox H, Crofts N. Injections for health-related reasons amongst injecting drug users in New Delhi and Imphal, India. Public Health, 120: 634-640, 2006.

• Helen Cox, Tanja Kubica, Daribay Doshetov, Yared Kebede, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Stefan Niemann. The Beijing genotype and drug resistant tuberculosis in the Aral Sea region of Central Asia. Respiratory Research, 6:134, November 2005

• Cox HS, Orozco JD, Male  R, Ruesch-Gerdes S, Falzon D, Small I, Doshetov D, Kebede Y, Aziz M. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Central Asia: an emerging threat. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(5): 865-872, 2004

• Cox Helen, Isles Siobhan. Beauty and the beast (measles in Nigeria) letter, Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3(1), 12, 2003

• Cox Helen, Hargreaves Sally, and Ismailov Gabit. Effect of multidrug resistance on global tuberculosis control. Letter, Lancet, 362: 1858-59, 2003

• Cox Helen and Sally Hargreaves. To treat or not to treat? Implementation of DOTS in Central Asia. Commentary. Lancet, 361: 714-715, March, 2003.

• Cox HS, Williams JW, de Courten MP, Chitson P, Tuomilehto J, Zimmet P. Falling prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle-income country of Mauritius. British Medical Journal, 321: 345-349, 2000

• Smolich JJ, Cox HS, Esler MD. Contribution of lungs to desipramine-induced changes in whole body catecholamine kinetics in newborn lambs. American Journal of Physiology, 276(1 pt 2): R243-R250, 1999

• Bunker S, McBurney H, Cox H, Jelinek M. Identifying participation rates at outpatient rehabilitation programs in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 19(6), 334-8, 1999

• Vaz M, Esler MD, Cox HS, Jennings GL, Kaye DM, Turner AG. Sympathetic nervous activity and the thermic effect of food in humans. Advances in Pharmacology, 42: 630-633, 1998.

• Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Turner AG, Ferrier C, Cox HS, Vaz M, Wilkinson D, Meredith IT, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Catecholamine metabolites in internal jugular plasma: a window into the human brain. Advances in Pharmacology, 42: 364-366, 1998.

• Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Turner AG, Cox HS, Vaz M, Jennings GL, Wallin BG, Esler MD. Internal jugular venous spillover of noradrenaline and metabolites and their association with sympathetic nervous activity. Acta Physiol Scand, 163(2): 155-163, 1998.

• Du XJ, Cox HS, Dart AM, Esler MD. Depression of efferent sympathetic control of heart rate in rats with myocardial infarction: effect of losartan. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 31(6): 937-944, 1998.

• Vaz M, Jennings G, Turner A, Cox HS, Lambert G, Esler M. Regional sympathetic nervous activity and oxygen consumption in obese normotensive human subjects. Circulation, 96(10): 3423-3429, 1997.

• Smolich JJ, Cox HS, Eisenhofer G, Esler MD. Pulmonary clearance and release of norepinephrine and epinephrine in newborn lambs. American Journal of Physiology, 273: L264-L274, 1997.

• Smolich JJ, Cox HS, Berger PJ, Walker AM, Eisenhofer G, Esler MD. Left ventricular norepinephrine and epinephrine kinetics at birth in lambs. Circulation Research, 81(3): 438-447, 1997.

• Morris MJ, Cox HS, Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Jennings GL, Meredith IT, Esler MD. Region-specific neuropeptide Y overflows at rest and during sympathetic activation in humans. Hypertension, 29 (1 pt 1): 137-143, 1997.

• Lambert GW, Thompson JM, Turner AG, Cox HS, Wilkinson D, Vaz M, Kalff V, Kelly MJ, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Cerebral noradrenaline spillover and its relation to muscle sympathetic nervous activity in healthy human subjects. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 64; 57-64, 1997. 

• Vaz M, Rajkumar C, Wong J, Mazzeo RS, Turner AG, Cox HS, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Oxygen consumption in the heart, hepatomesenteric bed, and brain in young and elderly human subjects, and accompanying sympathetic nervous activity. Metabolism, 45(12): 1487-1492, 1996.

• Smolich JJ, Cox HS, Eisenhofer G, Esler MD. Increased spillover and reduced clearance both contribute to rise in plasma catecholamines after birth in lambs. American Journal of Physiology, 270: H668-H677, 1996.

• Lambert GW, Vaz M, Rajkumar C, Cox HS, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Cerebral metabolism and its relationship with sympathetic nervous activity in essential hypertension: evaluation of the Dickinson hypothesis. Journal of Hypertension, 14(8): 951-959, 1996.

• Vaz M, Cox HS, Kaye DM, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Fallibility of plasma noradrenaline measurements in studying postprandial sympathetic nervous responses. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 56: 97-104, 1995.

• Vaz  M, Turner A, Kingwell B, Chin J, Koff E, Cox H, Jennings G, Esler M.  Postprandial sympatho-adrenal activity: its relation to metabolic and cardiovascular events and to changes in meal frequency. Clinical Science, 89: 349-357, 1995.

• Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Vaz M, Cox HS, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Regional origins of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol in plasma: effects of chronic sympathetic nervous activation and denervation, and acute reflex sympathetic stimulation. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 55:169-178, 1995.

• Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Lefkovitz J, Jennings GL, Turner AG, Cox HS, Esler MD. Central nervous system monoamine neurotransmitter turnover and its association with sympathetic nervous activation in human heart failure. Circulation, 1995

• Lambert GW, Kaye DM, Cox HS, Vaz M, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Regional 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid production in humans. Life Sciences, 57: 255-267, 1995.

• Lambert GW, Horne M, Kalff V, Kelly MJ, Turner AG, Cox HS, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Central nervous system noradrenergic and dopaminergic turnover in response to acute neuroleptic challenge. Life Sciences, 56:1545-1555, 1995.

• Esler MD, Thompson JM, Kaye DM, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Cox HS, Lambert GW, Seals DR. Effects of aging on the responsiveness of the human cardiac sympathetic nerves to stressors. Circulation, 91: 351-358, 1995.

• Esler M, Kaye D, Thompson J, Jennings G, Cox H, Turner A, Lambert G, Seals D. Effects of aging on epinephrine secretion and regional release of epinephrine from the human heart. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 80: 435-442, 1995.

• Esler  MD, Turner AG, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Kingwell BA, Mprris M, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Cox HS, Seals DR. Aging effects on human sympathetic neuronal function. American Journal of Physiology, 268: R278-R285, 1995.

• Cox HS, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Itsiopoulos C, Esler MD. Regional sympathetic nervous activation following a large meal in humans. Clinical Science, 89: 145-154, 1995.

• Pirpiris M, Cox H, Esler M, Jennings GL, Whitworth JA. Mineralocorticoid induced hypertension and noradrenaline spillover in man. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 16(2): 147-161, 1994.

• Esler MD, Turner AG, Kaye DM, Thompson JM, Kingwell BA, Morris M, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Cox HS, Seals DR. Effects of aging on the human sympathetic nervous system at rest studied using neurochemical indices of neuronal function. American Journal of Physiology, 1994

• Ward JE, Coles P, Cox H, Eisenhofer G, Angus JA. Relationship between the sympatholytic action of nebivolol and hypotension. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 20: 115-124, 1992.

• Lambert GW, Ferrier C, Kaye DM, Kalff V, Kelly M, Cox HS, Turner AG, Jennings GL, Esler MD, Monoaminergic neuronal activity in subcortical brain regions in essential hypertension. Blood Pressure, 3: 55-66, 1993.

• Lambert GW, Ferrier C, Jennings GL, Kalff V, Kelly MJ, Cox HS, Turner AG, Esler MD. Central nervous system norepinephrine turnover in essential hypertension. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1993

• Ferrier C, Jennings GL, Eisenhofer G, lambert G, Cox H, Kalff V, Esler M. Evidence for increased noradrenaline release from subcortical brain regions in essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 11: 1217-1227, 1993

• Ferrier C, Cox H, Esler M. Elevated total body noradrenaline spillover in normotensive members of hypertensive families. Clinical Science, 84: 225-230, 1993.

• Ferrier C, Esler M, Eisenhofer G, Wallin G, Horne M, Cox H, Lambert G, Jennings G. Increased norepinephrine spillover into the cerebrovascular circulation in essential hypertension: Evidence of high central nervous system norepinephrine turnover?, Hypertension, 19: 62-69, 1992.

• Meredith It, Esler MD, Cox HS, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Eisenhofer G. Biochemical evidence of sympathetic denervation of the heart in pure autonomic failure. Clinical Autonomic Research, 187-194, 1991.

• Lambert GW, Eisenhofer G, Cox HS, Horne M, Kalff V, Kelly M, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Direct determination of homovanillic acid release from the human brain, an indicator of central dopaminergic activity. Life Science, 49: 1061-1072, 1991.

• Jennings G, Esler M, Dart A, Lambert G, Nelson L, Cox H, Dewar E, Laufer E, Eisenhofer G. Effects of nebivolol on haemodynamics, cardiac dimensions and function, cardiovascular reflexes  and biochemical measures of sympathetic activity in normal human subjects. Drug Investigation, 3 (sup 1): 51-59, 1991.

• Esler M, Wallin G, Dorward P, Eisenhofer G, Westerman R, Meredith I, Lambert G, Cox H, Jennings G. effects of desipramine on sympathetic nerve firing and norepinephrine spillover to plasma in man. American Journal of Physiology, 260: R817-823, 1991.

• Esler M, Ferrier C, Lambert G, Eisenhofer G, Cox H, Jennings G. Biochemical evidence of sympathetic hyperactivity in human hypertension. Hypertension, 17(suppl.III): 29-35, 1991.

• Esler M, Eisenhofer G, Dart A, Chin J, Cox H, Lambert G, Jennings G. Adrenaline release by the human heart. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 18: 67-70, 1991.

• Esler M, Eisenhofer G, Chin J, Jennings G, Meredith I, Cox H, Lambert G, Thompson J, Dart A. Release of adrenaline from the human sympathetic nervous system. Clinical Autonomic Research, 1:103-108, 1991.

• Eisenhofer G, Smolich JJ, Cox HS, Esler MD. Neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and production of dihydroxyphenylglycol by cardiac sympathetic nerves in the anaesthetized dog. Circulation, 84: 1354-1363, 1991.

• Eisenhofer G, Saigusa T, Esler MD, Cox HS, Angus JA, Dorward PK. Central sympatho-inhibition and peripheral neuronal uptake blockade after desipramine in rabbits. American Journal of Physiology, 260: R824-832, 1991.

• Eisenhofer G, Meredith It, Ferrier C, Cox HS, Lambert GW, Jennings GL, Esler MD. Increased plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine during sympathetic activation in humans is related to increased norepinephrine turnover. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 117: 266-273, 1991.

• Eisenhofer G, Cox HS, Esler MD. Noradrenaline reuptake and plasma dihydroxyphenylglycol during sustained changes in sympathetic activity in rabbits. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 32: 217-232, 1991.

• Medvedev OS, Esler MD, Angus JA, Cox HS, Eisenhofer G. Simultaneous determination of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline kinetics: responses to nitroprusside induced hypotension and 2-deoxyglucose induced glucopenia in the rabbit. Naunyn Schmiederbergs Archives of Pharmacology, 341: 192-199, 1990.

• Eisenhofer G, Esler MD, Cox HS, Meredith IT, Jennings GL, Bruch JE Jnr, Goldstein DS. Differences in the neuronal removal of circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 70: 1710-1720, 1990.

• Eisenhofer G, Cox HS, Esler MD. Parallel increases in noradrenaline reuptake and release into plasma during activation of the sympathetic nervous system in rabbits. Naunyn Schmiederbergs Archives of Pharmacology, 342: 328-338, 1990.