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Research Groups

Prof Nelesh Govender

• Bio Sketch

Professor Govender’s contributions to the field of medical mycology include 1) discovery of a novel thermally-dimorphic fungal pathogen within a new genus, Emergomyces and a new species within the fungal genus, Blastomyces; 2) spearheading implementation and evaluation of a national screen & treat intervention for cryptococcal disease in South Africa; and 3) providing the first descriptions of emerging antifungal resistance in South Africa. He heads the Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial Resistance and Mycoses at the National Institute for Communicable Diseases in South Africa. He is the principal investigator on several large international grants from the US National Institutes of Health (CAST-NET evaluation of South Africa’s national cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening programme), US CDC (laboratory support for the national CrAg screening programme) the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Baby GERMS surveillance of neonatal sepsis) and most recently, the UKRI/Medical Research Council (EFFECT Phase 3 multi-country clinical trial of HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal antigenaemia).


• Research Interests

o Cryptococcal disease
o Advanced HIV disease
o Candida auris and fungal healthcare-associated infections
o Neonatal sepsis


• Publications (Researchgate)

1. Govender NP, Maphanga T and Schwartz I. Emergomycosis. Essentials of Human Mycoses. Editors: Angel Gonzalez, Beatriz Gomez. First edition: 2018. Corporación para Investigaciones Biologicas.  

2. Govender NP. Fungal Infections in General Practice. MIMS Handbook of Infectious Diseases (South Africa). Editor: Lucille Blumberg. First edition: 2011. MIMS (Arena Holdings (Pty) Ltd). 

3. Govender NP, Litvintseva A, Miglia K and Mitchell TG. Cryptococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Cryptococcus: from Human Pathogen to Model Yeast. Editors: Joseph Heitman, Tom Kozel, June Kwon-Chung, John Perfect, and Arturo Casadevall. Second edition: 2011. American Society for Microbiology Press.  

4. Jarvis JN, Tenforde MW, Lechiile K, Milton T, Boose A, Leeme TB, Tawe L, Muthoga C, Rukasha I, Mulenga F, Rulaganyang I, Molefi M, Molloy SF, Ngidi J, Harrison TS, Govender NP, Mine M. Evaluation of a Novel Semi-quantitative Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2020;JCM.00441-20. 5-year impact factor 4.183

5. Biswas C, Wang Q, van Hal SJ, Eyre DW, Hudson B, Halliday CL, Mazsewska K, Kizny Gordon A, Lee A, Irinyi L, Heath CH, Chakrabarti A, Govender NP, Meyer W, Sintchenko V, Chen SC. Genetic Heterogeneity of Australian Candida auris Isolates: Insights From a Nonoutbreak Setting Using Whole-Genome Sequencing. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020;7(5):ofaa158. Impact factor 3.371

6. van Schalkwyk E, et al. Screening for invasive fungal disease using non-culture-based assays among inpatients with advanced HIV disease at a large academic hospital in South Africa. Mycoses. 2020;63(5):478-487. 5-year impact factor 2.824

7. Magobo RE, Lockhart SL, Govender NP. Fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis strains with a Y132F substitution in the ERG11 gene causing invasive infections in a neonatal unit, South Africa. Mycoses. 2020;63(5):471-477. 5-year impact factor 2.824

8. Naicker SD, Mpembe RS, Maphanga TG, Zulu TG, Desanto D, Wadula J, Mvelase N, Maluleka C, Reddy K, Dawood H, Maloba M, Govender NP; for GERMS-SA. Decreasing fluconazole susceptibility of clinical South African Cryptococcus neoformans isolates over a decade. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(3):e0008137. 5-year impact factor 4.718 

9. Maphanga TG, Birkhead M, Muñoz J, Allam M, Zulu T, Cuomo C, Schwartz I, Ismail A, Naicker S, Mpembe R, Corcoran C, de Hoog S, Kenyon C, Borman A, Frean J, and Govender NP. Human blastomycosis in South Africa caused by Blastomyces percursus and Blastomyces emzantsi sp. nov., 1967 – 2014. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Feb 24;58(3). 5-year impact factor 4.183

10. Magobo R, Mhlanga M, Corcoran C, Govender NP. Multi-locus sequence typing of azole-resistant Candida auris strains, South Africa. S Afr J Infect Dis 2020;35(1):a116. 5-year impact factor unavailable

11. Quan VC, Toro-Silva S, Sriruttan C, Chetty V, Chihota V, Candfield S, Vassall A, Grant AD, Govender NP. Pathways to care and outcomes among hospitalised HIV-seropositive persons with cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0225742. 5-year impact factor 3.337

12. van Schalkwyk E, Mpembe RS, Thomas J, Shuping L, Ismail H, Lowman W, Karstaedt AS, Chibabhai V, Wadula J, Avenant T, Messina A, Govind CN, Moodley K, Dawood H, Ramjathan P, Govender NP; GERMS-SA. An epidemiological shift in candidemia driven by Candida auris: national laboratory-based surveillance in South Africa, 2016-2017. Emerg Infect Dis 2019; 25(9):1690-99. 5-year impact factor 7.152

13. Birkhead M, Naicker SD, Blasich NP, Rukasha I, Thomas J, Sriruttan C, Abrahams S, Mavuso GS, Govender NP. Cryptococcus neoformans: Diagnostic Dilemmas, Electron Microscopy and Capsular Variants. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2018 Dec 20;4(1). 5-year impact factor unavailable 

14. Govender NP, Magobo RE, Mpembe R, Mhlanga M, Matlapeng P, Corcoran C, Govind C, Lowman W, Senekal M, Thomas J. Candida auris in South Africa, 2012-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018. Nov;24(11):2036-2040. 5-year impact factor 7.152

15. Cassim N, Coetzee L, Govender NP, Glencross DK. District and sub-district analysis of cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence and specimen positivity in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Afr J Lab Med 2018. Oct 11;7(1):757. 5-year impact factor unavailable 

16. Jiang Y, Dukik K, Muñoz JF, Sigler L, Schwartz ISS, Govender NP, Kenyon C, Feng P, van den Ende BG, Stielow JB, Stchigel AM, Lu H, de Hoog S. Phylogeny, ecology and taxonomy of systemic pathogens and their relatives in Ajellomycetaceae (Onygenales): Blastomyces, Emergomyces, Emmonsia, Emmonsiellopsis. Fungal Diversity. 2018. 90:245. 5-year impact factor 10.264

17. Wake R, Jarvis JN, Harrison TS, Govender NP. Point of Care Cryptococcal Antigen Screening: Pipetting Finger-Prick Blood Improves Performance of Immuno-Mycologics Lateral Flow Assay. J Acquir Imm Defic Syndr 2018. Aug 15;78(5):574-578. 5-year impact factor 3.823

18. Coetzee L, Cassim N, Govender NP, Glencross DK. Cryptococcal antigen positivity combined with the percentage of HIV-seropositive samples with CD4 counts <100 cells/μl identifies districts in South Africa with advanced burden of disease. PLOS One 2018. Jun 12;13(6):e0198993. 5-year impact factor 3.337

19. Wake RM, Govender NP, Omar T, Nel C, Mazanderani AH, Karat AS, Ismail NA, Tiemessen CT, Jarvis JN, Harrison TS. Cryptococcal-related mortality despite fluconazole pre-emptive treatment in a cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screen-and-treat programme. Clin Infect Dis. 2019. Jun 8;ciz485. 5-year impact factor 8.835

20. Osler M, Hilderbrand K, Goemaere E, Ford N, Smith M, Meintjes G, Kruger J, Govender NP, Boulle A. The continuing burden of advanced HIV disease over ten years of increasing antiretroviral therapy coverage in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 2018. Mar 4;66(suppl_2):S118-S125. 5-year impact factor 8.835

21. Crombie K, Spengane Z, Locketz M, Dlamini S, Lehloenya R, Wasserman S, Maphanga TG, Govender NP, Kenyon C, Schwartz IS. Paradoxical worsening of Emergomyces africanus infection in an HIV-infected male on itraconazole and antiretroviral therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Mar 8;12(3):e0006173. 5-year impact factor 4.718 

22. Schwartz IS, Lerm B, Hoving JC, Kenyon C, Horsnell WG, Basson WJ, Otieno-Odhiambo P, Govender NP, Colebunders R, Botha A. Emergomyces africanus in soil, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;24(2):377-380. 5-year impact factor 7.152

23. Wake RM, Britz E, Sriruttan C, Rukasha I, Omar T, Spencer DC, Nel JS, Mashamaite S, Adelekan A, Chiller TM, Jarvis JN, Harrison TS, Govender NP. High Cryptococcal Antigen Titers in Blood are Predictive of Subclinical Cryptococcal Meningitis Among HIV-Infected Patients. Clin Infect Dis 2018 Feb 10;66(5):686-692. 5-year impact factor 8.835

24. Hlophe ST, Govender NP, Masekela R. Invasive fungal infections among critically ill children: epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes. Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med 2018;24(1):11-14. 5-year impact factor unavailable 

25. Rajasingham R, Smith R, Park BJ, Jarvis JN, Govender NP, Chiller TM, Denning DW, Loyse A, Boulware DR. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: An updated analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017. 17(8):873-881. 5-year impact factor 23.363

26. Lockhart SR, Etienne KA, Vallabhaneni S, Farooqi J, Chowdhary A, Govender NP, Colombo AL, Calvo B, Cuomo CA, Desjardins CA, Berkow EL, Castanheira M, Magobo RE, Jabeen K, Asghar RJ, Meis JF, Jackson B, Chiller T, Litvintseva AP. Simultaneous emergence of multidrug resistant Candida auris on three continents confirmed by whole genome sequencing and epidemiological analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(2):134-140. 5-year impact factor 8.835

27. Lerm B, Kenyon C Schwartz I, Kroukamp H, de Witt R, Govender N, de Hoog S, Botha A. First report of urease activity in the novel systemic fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus: a comparison with the neurotrope Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Yeast Research 2017 Nov 1;17(7). 5-year impact factor 3.233

28. Schwartz IS, Kenyon C, Lehloenya R, Claasens S, Spengane Z, Prozesky H, Burton R, Parker A, Wasserman S, Meintjes G, Mendelson M, Taljaard J, Schneider JW, Beylis N, Maloba B, Govender NP, Colebunders R, Dlamini S. AIDS-related endemic mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa and clinical mimics: a cross-sectional study of adults with advanced HIV and recent-onset, widespread skin lesions. Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 Aug 25;4(4):ofx186. Impact factor 3.371

29. Cronjé N, Schwartz IS, Retief L, Bastos ADS, Matthee S, Preiser W, Bennett NC, Maphanga T, Govender NP, Colebunders R, Kenyon C. Attempted molecular detection of the thermally dimorphic human fungal pathogen Emergomyces africanus in terrestrial small mammals in South Africa. Med Mycol 2017. Jun 1;56(4):510-513. 5-year impact factor 3.015

30. Dukik K, Muñoz JF, Jiang Y, Feng P, Sigler L, Stielow JB, Freeke J, Jamalian A, van den Ende BG, McEwen JG, Clay OK, Schwartz ISS, Govender NP, Maphanga TG, Cuomo CA, Moreno L, Kenyon C, Borman AM, de Hoog S. Novel taxa of thermally dimorphic systemic pathogens in the Ajellomycetaceae (Onygenales). Mycoses. 2017 May;60(5):296-309. 5-year impact factor 2.824

31. Chen Y, Farrer RA, Giamberardino C, Sakthikumar S, Jones A, Yang T, Tenor JL, Wagih O, Van Wyk M, Govender NP, Mitchell TG, Litvintseva AP, Cuomo CA, Perfect JR. Microevolution of Serial Clinical Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii. mBio. 2017 Mar 7;8(2). 5-year impact factor 7.270

32. Naicker S, Govender N, Patel J, Zietman IL, Wadula J, Coovadia Y, Kularatne R, Seetharam S and Govender NP. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010. Med Mycol 2016 Nov 1;54(8):816-24. 5-year impact factor 3.015

33. Larson BA, Rockers PC, Bonawitz R, Sriruttan C, Glencross DK, Cassim N, Coetzee L, Greene GS, Chiller TM, Vallabhaneni S, Long L, van Rensburg C, Govender NP. Screening HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts for cryptococcal antigenemia prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy: cost effectiveness of alternative screening strategies in South Africa. PLoS One 2016. Jul 8;11(7):e0158986. 5-year impact factor 3.337

34. Meiring ST, Fortuin-de Smidt M, Kularatne R, Dawood H, and Govender NP. Prevalence and hospital management of amphotericin B deoxycholate-related toxicities during treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 28;10(7):e0004865. 5-year impact factor 4.718

35. Vallabhaneni S, Longley N, Smith M, Smith R, Osler M, Kelly N, Cross A, Boulle A, Meintjes G, Govender NP. Evaluation of a Public-sector, Provider-initiated Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Treatment Program, Western Cape, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jun 1;72(2):e37-42. 5-year impact factor 3.823

36. Prakash A, Sharma C, Singh A, Singh PK, Kumar A, Hagen F, Govender NP, Colombo AL, Meis JF, Chowdhary A. Evidence of genotypic diversity among Candida auris isolates by multilocus sequence typing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and amplified fragment length polymorphism. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Mar;22(3):277.e1-9. 5-year impact factor 6.067

37. Longley N, Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Boulle A, Cross A, Kelly N, Govender NP, Bekker LG, Wood R, Harrison TS. Cryptococcal Antigen Screening in Patients Initiating ART In South Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 1;62(5):581-7. 5-year impact factor 8.835

38. du Plessis D, Poonsamy B, Msimang V, Dini L, Cohen C, Govender NP, Dawood H, Coovadia Y, Karstaedt A, Frean J. Laboratory-based surveillance for Pneumocystis pneumonia in South Africa, 2006 through 2010. S Afr J Infect Dis 2016; 1(1):1-6. 5-year impact factor unavailable

39. van Hougenhouck-Tulleken WG, Mathole G, Karstaedt A, Govind N, Moodley M, Seetharam S, Govender NP, Menezes CN. Disseminated fungal infection in an HIV-infected patient due to Aureobasidium pullulans. S Afr J Infect Dis. 2016; 1(1):1-3. 5-year impact factor unavailable

40. Schwartz IS, Govender NP, Corcoran C, Dlamini S, Prozesky H, Burton R, Mendelson M, Taljaard J, Lehloenya R, Calligaro G, Colebunders R, Kenyon C. Clinical Characteristics, Diagnosis, Management, and Outcomes of Disseminated Emmonsiosis: A Retrospective Case Series. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 15;61(6):1004-12. 5-year impact factor 8.835

41. Govender NP, Roy M, Mendes JF, Zulu TG, Chiller TM and Karstaedt AS. Evaluation of Screening and Treatment of Cryptococcal Antigenaemia among HIV-infected Persons in Soweto, South Africa. HIV Med. 2015 Sep;16(8):468-76. 5-year impact factor 3.106

42. van Hougenhouck-Tulleken WG, Papavarnavas NS, Nel JS, Blackburn LY, Govender NP, Spencer DC, Lippincott CK. HIV-Associated Disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Dec;20(12):2164-6. 5-year impact factor 7.152

43. Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, Meintjes G, Hogan L, Roberts CH, Shoham S, Perfect JR, Govender NP, Harrison TS. Very Low Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Are Not Associated With Immunologic Changes or Clinical Outcome in South African Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15;59(4):493-500. 5-year impact factor 8.835

44. Magobo RE, Corcoran C, Seetharam S, Govender NP. Candida auris-Associated Candidemia, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Jul;20(7):1250-1. 5-year impact factor 7.152

45. van Wyk M, Govender NP, Mitchell TG, Litvintseva AP; GERMS-SA. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Serially Collected Isolates of Cryptococcus from HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Jun;52(6):1921-31. 5-year impact factor 4.183

46. Lochan H, Naicker P, Maphanga T, Ryan A, Pillay K, Govender NP, Eley B. A case of emmonsiosis in an HIV-infected child. S Afr J HIV Med 2014; 16(1):e1-e4. 5-year impact factor unavailable

47. Govender NP, Magobo RE, Zulu TG, du Plooy M and Corcoran C. Disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Pencillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller. S Afr J HIV Med 2014; 15(4): e1-e2. 5-year impact factor unavailable

48. Kenyon C, Bonorchis K, Corcoran C, Meintjes G, Locketz M, Lehloenya R, Vismer HF, Naicker P, Prozesky H, van Wyk M, Bamford C, du Plooy M, Imrie G, Dlamini S, Borman AM, Colebunders R, Yansouni CP, Mendelson M and Govender NP. A Dimorphic Fungus Causing Disseminated Infection in South Africa. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1416-24. 5-year impact factor 70.331

49. Meiring ST, Quan VC, Cohen C, Dawood H, Karstaedt AS, McCarthy KM, Whitelaw AC, Govender NP; for GERMS-SA. A comparison of paediatric- and adult-onset cryptococcosis detected through population-based surveillance in South Africa, 2005-2007. AIDS. 2012 Nov 28;26(18):2307-14. 5-year impact factor 4.495 

50. Rossouw I, Goedhals D, van der Merwe J, Stallenberg V, Govender N. A rare, fatal case of invasive spinal aspergillosis in an antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected man with pre-existing lung colonization. J Med Microbiol. 2011 Oct;60(Pt 10):1534-8. 5-year impact factor 2.452

51. Litvintseva AP, Carbone I, Rossouw J, Thakur R, Govender NP, Mitchell TG. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa. PLoS One. 2011 May 11;6(5):e19688. 5-year impact factor 3.337

52. Park BJ, Shetty S, Ahlquist A, Greenbaum A, Miller JL, Motsi A, McCarthy K, Govender N; for the Gauteng Cryptococcal Surveillance Initiative Group. Long-term follow-up and survival of antiretroviral-naive patients with cryptococcal meningitis in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Apr;22(4):199-203. 5-year impact factor 1.429

53. Miglia KJ, Govender NP, Rossouw J, Meiring S, Mitchell TG; GERMS-SA. Analyses of pediatric isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2011 Jan;49(1):307-14. 5-year impact factor 4.183

54. Park BJ, Wannemuehler KA, Marston BJ, Govender N, Pappas PG, Chiller TM. Estimation of the current global burden of cryptococcal meningitis among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS. 2009 Feb 20;23(4):525-30. 5-year impact factor 4.495


Theme 2 – Antimicrobial resistance 

55. Espinel-Ingroff A, Turnidge J, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Botterel F, Canton E, Castro C, Chen YC, Chen Y, Chryssanthou E, Dannaoui E, Garcia-Effron G, Gonzalez GM, Govender NP, Guinea J, Kidd S, Lackner M, Lass-Flörl C, Linares-Sicilia MJ, López-Soria L, Magobo R, Pelaez T, Quindós G, Rodriguez-Iglesia MA, Ruiz MA, Sánchez-Reus F, Sanguinetti M, Shields R, Szweda P, Tortorano A, Wengenack NL, Bramati S, Cavanna C, DeLuca C, Gelmi M, Grancini A, Lombardi G, Meletiadis J, Negri CE, Passera M, Peman J, Prigitano A, Sala E, Tejada M. Method-Dependent Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Detection of Triazole Resistance in Candida and Aspergillus Species for the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Broth and Etest Agar Diffusion Methods. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Dec 21;63(1). 5-year impact factor 4.719

56. Perovic O, Singh-Moodley A, Govender NP, Kularatne R, Whitelaw A, Chibabhai V, Naicker P, Mbelle N, Lekalakala R, Quan V, Samuel C, van Schalkwyk E for GERMS-SA. Small proportion of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, as compared to healthcare-associated cases, in two South African provinces. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017. 36(12):2519-2532. 5-year impact factor 2.722

57. Espinel-Ingroff A, Abreu D, Almeida-Paes R, Brilhante R, Chakrabarti A, Chowdhary A, Hagen F, Córdoba S, González G, Govender N, Guarro J, Johnson E, Kidd S, Pereira S, Rodrigues A, Rozental S, M Szeszs, Raquel Ballesté Alaniz, Alexandro Bonifaz, L. Bonfietti, Luana Borba-Santos, Javier Capilla, A Colombo, Maribel Dolande, M Isla, Marcia Melhem, A Mesa-Arango, Manoel M. Evangelista de Oliveira, Maria Panizo, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Rosely Zancope-Oliveira, Jacques Meis, and John Turnidge. Multicenter and international study of MIC/MEC distributions for definition of epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for species of Sporothrix identified by molecular methods. Antimicrob Agent Chemother 2017. 61(10). pii: e01057-17. 5-year impact factor 4.719

58. Maphanga TG, Britz E, Zulu TG, Mpembe RS, Naicker SD, Schwartz IS, Govender NP. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the yeast- and mould-phases of the dimorphic fungal pathogen, Emergomyces africanus (formerly Emmonsia species), from HIV-infected South African patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Jun;55(6):1812-1820. 5-year impact factor 4.183

59. Espinel-Ingroff A, Arendrup M, Cantón E, Cordoba S, Dannaoui E, García-Rodríguez J, González G, Govender N, Martín-Mazuelos E, Lackner M, Lass-Flörl C, Linares-Sicilia M, Rodriguez-Iglesias M, Pelaez T, Shields R, Garcia-Effron G, Guinea J, Sanguinetti M, and Turnidge J. A multi-center study of method-dependent epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for resistance detection in Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. to amphotericin B and echinocandins for the Etest agar diffusion method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2016. Dec 27;61(1). pii: e01792-16. 5-year impact factor 4.719

60. Govender NP, Patel J, Magobo RE, Naicker S, Wadula J, Whitelaw A, Coovadia Y, Kularatne R, Govind C, Lockhart SR, Zietsman IZ on behalf of the TRAC-South Africa group. Emergence of Azole-Resistant Candida parapsilosis causing Bloodstream Infection: Results from Laboratory-Based Sentinel Surveillance, South Africa. J Antimicrob Chemother 2016 Jul;71(7):1994-2004. 5-year impact factor 5.068

61. Naicker S, Magobo RE, Zulu TG, Maphanga TG, Luthuli N, Lowman W and Govender NP. Two echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata FKS mutants from South Africa. Med Mycol Case Rep 2016. Mar 21;11:24-6. 5-year impact factor unavailable

62. Espinel-Ingroff A, Alvarez-Fernandez M, Cantón E, Carver PL, S. C-A. Chen, G. Eschenauer, D. L. Getsinger, G. M. Gonzalez, Govender NP, A. Grancini, K. E. Hanson, S. E. Kidd, K. Klinker, C. J. Kubin, J.V. Kus, S. R. Lockhart, J. Meletiadis, A. J. Morris, T. Pelaez, G. Quindós, M. Rodriguez-Iglesias, F. Sánchez-Reus, S. Shoham, N. L. Wengenack, N. Borrell Solé, J. Echeverria, J. Esperalba, E. Gómez-G. de la Pedrosa, I. García García, M. J. Linares, F. Marco, P. Merino, J. Pemán, L. Pérez del Molino, E. Roselló Mayans, C. Rubio Calvo, M. Ruiz Pérez de Pipaon, G. Yagüe, G. Garcia-Effron, J. Guinea, D. S. Perlin, M. Sanguinetti, R. Shields, and J. Turnidge. A multi-center study of epidemiological cutoff values and detection of resistance in Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin using the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov;59(11):6725-32. 5-year impact factor 4.719

63. Smidt MC, Singh-Moodley A, Badat R, Quan V, Kularatne R, Nana T, Lekalakala R, Govender NP, Perovic O; for GERMS-SA. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in Gauteng academic hospitals, South Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan;30:41-8. 5-year impact factor 3.041

64. Espinel-Ingroff A, Aller AI, Canton E, Castañón-Olivares LR, Chowdhary A, Cordoba S, Cuenca-Estrella M, Fothergill A, Fuller J, Govender N, Hagen F, Illnait-Zaragozi MT, Johnson E, Kidd S, Lass-Flörl C, Lockhart SR, Martins MA, Meis JF, Melhem MS, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Pelaez T, Pfaller MA, Schell WA, St-Germain G, Trilles L, Turnidge J. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii Species Complex: An International Study of Wild-Type Susceptibility Endpoint Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Nov;56(11):5898-906. 5-year impact factor 4.719

65. Espinel-Ingroff A, Chowdhary A, Cuenca-Estrella M, Fothergill A, Fuller J, Hagen F, Govender N, Guarro J, Johnson E, Lass-Flörl C, Lockhart SR, Martins MA, Meis JF, Melhem MS, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Pelaez T, Pfaller MA, Schell WA, Trilles L, Kidd S, Turnidge J. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii Species Complex: An International Study of Wild-Type Susceptibility Endpoint Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Amphotericin B and Flucytosine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jun;56(6):3107-13. 5-year impact factor 4.719 

66. Govender NP, Patel J, van Wyk M, Chiller TM, Lockhart SR; for GERMS-SA. Trends in Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans Obtained Through Population-based Surveillance, South Africa, 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Jun;55(6):2606-11. 5-year impact factor 4.719

67. von Gottberg A, Klugman KP, Cohen C, Wolter N, de Gouveia L, du Plessis M, Mpembe R, Quan V, Whitelaw A, Hoffmann R, Govender N, Meiring S, Smith AM, Schrag S; GERMS-SA. Emergence of levofloxacin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children in South Africa: a cohort observational surveillance study. Lancet. 2008 Mar 29;371(9618):1108-13. 5-year impact factor 54.664

68. Marais E, Moodley A, Govender N, Kularatne R, Thomas J, Duse A. Clusters of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in neonatal intensive care units in Gauteng. S Afr Med J. 2006 Sep;96(9):813. 5-year impact factor 2.003


Refereed Journals - In Print: Reviews/Invited Editorials

Theme 1 – Mycoses 

76. Hoving JC, Brown GD, Gómez BL, Govender NP, Limper AH, May RC, Meya DB, the Working Group from the Workshop on AIDS-related Mycoses. AIDS-Related Mycoses: Updated Progress and Future Priorities. Trends Microbiol. 2020;28(6):425-428. 5-year impact factor 12.097

77. Shroufi A, Govender NP, Meintjes G, Black J, Nel J, Moosa MS, Menezes C, Dawood H, Wilson D, Duran LT, Ajose O, Murphy RA, Harrison T, Loyse A, Ruffell C, Van Cutsem G. Time to embrace access programmes for medicines: lessons from the South African flucytosine access programme. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;95:459-461. 5-year impact factor 3.315

78. Oladele R, Akase IE, Fahal A, Govender NP, Honigl M, Gangneux JP, Chiller TM, Denning DW, Cornely OA and Chakrabarti A. Bridging the knowledge gap on mycoses in Africa; setting up a Pan-African Mycology Working Group. Mycoses. 2020 Mar;63(3):244-249. 5-year impact factor 2.824

79. Govender NP, Meintjes G, Mangena P, Nel J, Potgieter S, Reddy D, Rabie H, Wilson D, Black J, Boulware D, Boyles T, Chiller T, Dawood H, Dlamini S, Harrison T, Ive P, Jarvis J, Karstaedt A, Madua M, Menezes C, Moosa M, Motlekar Z, Shroufi A, Stacey S, Tsitsi M, van Cutsem G, Variava E, Venter M, Wake R. Southern African HIV Clinicians Society guideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of cryptococcal disease among HIV-infected persons: 2019 update. S Afr J HIV Med. 2019;20(1):1-16. 5-year impact factor 1.029

80. Schwartz IS, Govender NP, Sigler L, Jiang Y, Maphanga TG, Toplis B, Botha A, Dukik K, Hoving JC, Muñoz JF, de Hoog S, Cuomo CA, Colebunders R, Kenyon C. Emergomyces: the global rise of new dimorphic fungal pathogens. PLOS Pathogens 2019. Sep 19;15(9):e1007977. 5-year impact factor 6.946

81. Govender NP and Grayson W. Emergomycosis (Emergomyces africanus) in Advanced HIV Disease. Dermatopathol 2019;6(2):63–69. 5-year impact factor unavailable 

82. Moodley A, Mosam A, Govender NP, Mahabeer Y, Chateau AV. Emergomyces africanus: The Mimicking Fungus. Dermatopathol. 2019;6(2):157-162. 5-year impact factor unavailable

83. Bongomin F, Govender NP, Chakrabarti A, Robert-Gangneux F, Boulware DR, Zafar A, Oladele RO, Richardson MD, Gangneux JP, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Bazira J, Boyles TH, Sarcarlal J, Nacher M, Obayashi T, Worodria W, Pasqualotto AC, Meya DB, Cheng B, Sriruttan C, Muzoora C, Kambugu A, Rodriguez Tudela JL, Jordan A, Chiller TM, Denning DW. Essential in vitro diagnostics for advanced HIV and serious fungal diseases: international experts' consensus recommendations. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019. Jun 7. 5-year impact factor 2.722

84. Loyse A, Burry J, Cohn J, Ford N, Chiller T, Ribeiro I, Koulla-Shiro S, Mghamba J, Ramadhani A, Nyirenda R, Aliyu S, Wilson D, Le T, Oladele R, Lesikari S, Muzoora C, Kalata N, Temfack E, Mapoure YN, Sini V, Chanda D, Shimwela M, Lakhi S, Ngoma J, Gondwe L, Perfect C, Shroufi A, Andrieux-Meyer I, Chan AK, Schutz C, Hosseinipour M, van der Horst C, MD; Klausner JD, Boulware DR, Heyderman R, Lalloo D, Day J, Jarvis JN, Rodrigues M, Jaffar S, Denning D, Migone C, Doherty M, Lortholary O, Dromer F, Stack M, Molloy SF, Bicanic T, van Oosterhout JJ, Mwaba P, Kanyama C, Kouanfack C, Mfinanga S, Govender NP, Harrison TS. Leave no-one behind: Responding to new evidence and guidelines for the management of cryptococcal meningitis in low- and middle-income countries. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Apr;19(4):e143-e147. 5-year impact factor 23.363

85. Govender N, Avenant T, Brink, A, Chibabhai V, Cleghorn J, du Toit B, Govind C, Lewis E, Lowman W, Mahlangu H, Maslo C, Messina A, Mer M, Pieton K, Seetharam S, Sriruttan C, Swart K, van Schalkwyk E. Federation of Infectious Diseases Societies of Southern Africa guideline: Recommendations for the detection, management and prevention of healthcare-associated Candida auris colonisation and disease in South Africa. S Afr J Infect Dis 2019;34(1),17 pages. 5-year impact factor unavailable

86. Nacher M, Blanchet D, Bongomin F, Chakrabarti A, Couppié P, Demar M, Denning DW, Djossou F, Epelboin L, Govender N, Leitão T, Mac Donald S, Mandengue C, Marques da Silva SH, Oladele R, Panizo MM, Pasqualotto A, Ramos R, Swaminathan S, Rodriguez-Tudela JL, Vreden S, Zancopé-Oliveira R, Adenis A. Histoplasma capsulatum antigen detection tests as an essential diagnostic tool for patients with advanced HIV disease in low and middle income countries: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018. Oct;12(10):e0006802. 5-year impact factor 4.718

87. Hoenigl M, Gangneux JP, Segal E, Alanio A, Chakrabarti A, Chen SCA, Govender NP, Hagen F, Klimko N, Meis JF, Pasqualotto AC, Seidel D, Walsh TJ, Lagrou K, Lass-Flörl C, Cornely OA for the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM). Global Guidelines and Initiatives from the European Confederation of Medical Mycology to improve Patient Care and Research Worldwide: New Leadership is about Working Together. Mycoses. 2018 Nov;61(11):885-894. 5-year impact factor 2.824

88. Govender NP and Glencross DK. National coverage of reflex cryptococcal antigen screening: a milestone achievement in the care of persons with advanced HIV disease. S Afr Med J 2018. 108(7):534-3. 5-year impact factor 2.003

89. Schwartz I, Maphanga TG, Govender NP. Emergomyces: a New Genus of Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens Causing Disseminated Disease among Immunocompromised Persons Globally. Curr Fung Infect Rep. 2018. 12;44–50. 5-year impact factor unavailable  

90. Cole DC, Govender NP, Chakrabarti A, Sacarlal J, Denning DW. Improving fungal disease identification and management - combined health systems and public health approaches are needed. Lancet Infect Dis 2017. Jul;S1473-3099(17)30308-0. 5-year impact factor 23.363

91. Molloy SF, Chiller T, Greene G, Govender NP, Kanyama C, Mfinanga S, Boulware D, Bury J, Dromer F, Denning D, Day J, Mapoure YN, Stone N, Bicanic T, Jarvis J, Lortholary O, Harrison T, Jaffar S, Loyse A. Cryptococcal meningitis: a neglected NTD? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017. Jun 29;11(6):e0005575. 5-year impact factor 4.718

92. Greene GS, Sriruttan C, Le T, Chiller T and Govender NP. Looking for Fungi in All the Right Places: Screening for Cryptococcal Disease and Other AIDS-Related Mycoses Before Antiretroviral Treatment Initiation. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017. Mar;12(2):139-147. 5-year impact factor 4.021

93. Wake R, Sriruttan C, Glencross DK, Harrison TS, Govender NP. Cryptococcal Antigen Screening in HIV-infected Adults - let's get straight to the point-of-care. AIDS. 2016 Jan 28;30(3):339-42. 5-year impact factor 4.495

94. Britz E and Govender NP. Global emergence of a multi-drug resistant fungal pathogen, Candida auris. S Afr J Infect Dis 2016; 31(3):69-70. 5-year impact factor unavailable

95. Wake R and Govender NP. Cryptococcosis in apparently immune-competent patients: taxonomy, epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. S Afr J Infect Dis 2016; 31(2):32-34. 5-year impact factor unavailable

96. Schwartz IS, Kenyon C, Feng P, Govender NP, Dukik K, Sigler L, Jiang Y, Stielow JB, Muñoz JF, Cuomo CA, Botha A, Stchigel AM, de Hoog S. 50 years of Emmonsia disease in humans: the dramatic emergence of a cluster of novel fungal pathogens. PLoS Pathogens. 2015 Nov;11(11):e1005198. 5-year impact factor 6.946

97. Govender NP and Dlamini S. Management of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2014;104 (12): 896. 5-year impact factor 2.003 

98. Govender NP, Meintjes G and Banoo S. Access to flucytosine for HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis: an urgent need. S Afr Med J. 2014;104(9):594-595. 5-year impact factor 2.003 

99. Brown GD, Meintjes G, Kolls JK, Gray C, Horsnell W; Working Group from the EMBO-AIDS Related Mycoses Workshop, Achan B, Alber G, Aloisi M, Armstrong-James D, Beale M, Bicanic T, Black J, Bohjanen P, Botes A, Boulware DR, Brown G, Bunjun R, Carr W, Casadevall A, Chang C, Chivero E, Corcoran C, Cross A, Dawood H, Day J, De Bernardis F, De Jager V, De Repentigny L, Denning D, Eschke M, Finkelman M, Govender N, Gow N, Graham L, Gryschek R, Hammond-Aryee K, Harrison T, Heard N, Hill M, Hoving JC, Janoff E, Jarvis J, Kayuni S, King K, Kolls J, Kullberg BJ, Lalloo DG, Letang E, Levitz S, Limper A, Longley N, Machiridza TR, Mahabeer Y, Martinsons N, Meiring S, Meya D, Miller R, Molloy S, Morris L, Mukaremera L, Musubire AK, Muzoora C, Nair A, Nakiwala Kimbowa J, Netea M, Nielsen K, O'hern J, Okurut S, Parker A, Patterson T, Pennap G, Perfect J, Prinsloo C, Rhein J, Rolfes MA, Samuel C, Schutz C, Scriven J, Sebolai OM, Sojane K, Sriruttan C, Stead D, Steyn A, Thawer NK, Thienemann F, Von Hohenberg M, Vreulink JM, Wessels J, Wood K, Yang YL. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward. Trends Microbiol. 2014 Mar;22(3):107-9. 5-year impact factor 12.097 

100. Loyse A, Thangaraj H, Easterbrook P, Ford N, Roy M, Chiller T, Govender N, Harrison TS, Bicanic T. Cryptococcal meningitis: improving access to essential antifungal medicines in resource-poor countries. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Jul;13(7):629-37. 5-year impact factor 23.363

101. Govender NP, Meintjes G, Bicanic T, Dawood H, Harrison TS, Jarvis JN, Karstaedt AS, Maartens G, McCarthy KM, Rabie H, Variava E and Venter WDF. Guideline for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Cryptococcal Meningitis among HIV-infected Persons: 2013 Update. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(2):76-86. 5-year impact factor 1.029

102. Jarvis JN, Govender N, Chiller T, Park BJ, Longley N, Meintjes G, Bekker LG, Wood R, Lawn SD, Harrison TS. Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Pre-emptive Therapy in Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: A Proposed Algorithm for Clinical Implementation. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2012 Nov-Dec;11(6):374-9. 5-year impact factor unavailable

103. Govender NP, Roy M, Oladoyinbo S, Maotoe T, Stevens W, Pinini Z, Spencer D, Venter WDF, Jassat W, Cameron D, Meintjes G, Chiller T, Chetty V, Mbengashe T and Pillay Y for the South African Cryptococcal Screening Initiative Group. Phased Implementation of Screening for Cryptococcal Disease in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2012. Oct;102(12):914-7. 5-year impact factor 2.003 

104. Klausner J, Govender N, Oladoyinbo S, Roy M, Chiller T. Response to Parkes-Ratanshi R, Wakeham K, Levin J, et al: Primary prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease with fluconazole in HIV-positive Ugandan adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012. Jun;12(6):431-2. 5-year impact factor 23.363

105. Jarvis JN, Harrison TS, Govender N, Lawn SD, Longley N, Bicanic T, Maartens G, Venter F, Bekker LG, Wood R, Meintjes G. Routine cryptococcal antigen screening for HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts--time to implement in South Africa? S Afr Med J. 2011. Apr;101(4):232-4. 5-year impact factor 2.003

106. Govender NP, Chiller T, Poonsamy B and Frean JA. Neglected Fungal Diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: A Call to Action. Curr Fungal Infect Rep. 2011. 5:224-32. 5-year impact factor unavailable

107. McCarthy KM, Meintjes G, Arthington-Skaggs B, Bicanic T, Cotton M, Chiller T, Govender N, Harrison T, Karstaedt AS, Maartens G, Rabie H, Varavia E, Venter WDF, Vismer H. Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Cryptococcal Meningitis and Disseminated Cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients. S Afr J HIV Med 2007. Spring:25-35. 5-year impact factor 1.029 

108. Govender N. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections: a guide to using the clinical microbiology laboratory. S Afr J HIV Med 2007. Spring:18-23. 5-year impact factor 1.029


Theme 2 – Antimicrobial resistance

109. Boyles T, Mendelson M, Govender NP, du Plessis NP. The infectious diseases specialty in South Africa is in crisis. S Afr Med J. 2019;109(9):620-621. 5-year impact factor 2.003


Theme 3 – Infectious disease surveillance and outbreaks

110. Dramowski A, Velaphi S, Reubenson G, Bekker A, Perovic O, Finlayson H, Duse A, Rhoda NR, Govender NP. National Neonatal Sepsis Task Force launch: Supporting infection prevention and surveillance, outbreak investigation and antimicrobial stewardship in neonatal units in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2020;110(5):360-363. 5-year impact factor 2.003 

111. Govender NP and Reubenson G. Initiatives from the Federation of Infectious Diseases Societies of Southern Africa (FIDSSA) to Tackle Infectious Diseases in South Africa and the Region. S Afr J Infect Dis. 2018. 33 (2):3-4. 5-year impact factor unavailable


Refereed Journals - In Press: Original Articles

Theme 3 – Infectious disease surveillance and outbreaks

112. Essel V, Tshabalala K, Ntshoe G, Mphaphuli E, Feller G, Shonhiwa AM, McCarthy KM, Ismail H, Stasheim W, Lowe M, Perovic O, Hlonipho M, Govender NP. A multisectoral investigation of a neonatal unit outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia at a regional hospital in Gauteng province, South Africa. S Afr Med J 2020. In press. 5-year impact factor 2.003